Acceptance of a Lot: The approval of a lot as conforming to a
contract or specification, or both.
ALL-Around-Turn-Back: A type of welt used in work gloves, in
which the welt extends far enough out from the seam to permit a portion
of it to be turned back over the finger or thumb. (See also Davey Tip.)
Aniline Finish: A clear finish with little or no pigmentation.
Alligator-grained Leather: Leathers of various types, such as
calf, sheep, or side, embossed to resemble the grain of alligator hide.
Apron Leathers: Any one of several varieties of leather used in
connection with textile machinery and blacksmith aprons. Comber and Gill
Box apron leather is soft, mellow, tough leather, tanned from steer
hide, heavily stuffed and boarded or otherwise softened. Rub Roll apron
leather is a flexible but firm, dry, strong leather.
Aspergillus Niger: One of the most common mold growths found on
vegetable-tanned vats and on leather, usually greenish or blackish in
Bag Leather: A general term for leathers used in traveling bags
and suitcases. It does not include the light leathers employed for
women’s fancy handbags. The staple material for bag and case leather at
present is leather made from the hides of animals of the bovine species,
but heavy sealskins and goatskins are also used.
Bal: A laced shoe in which the quarters meet and the vamp is
stitched over the quarters at the front of the throat.
Barkometer: A hydrometer used for determining the specific
gravity of tanning solutions. A specific gravity of 1.000 is equivalent
of 0 deg barkometer (Bk), and each addition degree Bk is equivalent to
an increase of 0.001 in specific gravity.
Bark Tanning: So-called because tannin extracted from the bark of
various trees is usually used. (See also Vegetable Tanning.)
Baseball Leather: Leather used for covers of baseballs. The
better grades of balls have covers of alum-tanned horsehide front
leather. Some cheaper grades are made of kip and sheepskins.
Bate: To treat unhaired hides or skins with a warm aqueous
solution of an enzyme in order to remove certain undesirable nitrogenous
Beam: A convex wooden slab sloping downward from about waist
height over which a hide is placed for trimming of excess flesh and
ragged edges and scudding by hand.
Belting Butt: A double back with the tail cut off at the butt
line. (See RUT’S in Fig. 1.)
Belting Butt Bend: A double bend with the tail cut off at the
butt line. (See RR’S’S in Fig. 1.)
Belly: That part of the hide below the belly line. (See VWP’P in
Fig. 1.) For steerhide leather, the belly line, RU, passes through a
point at or above the top of the rear break. For cowhide leather, the
belly line passes through a point at or above the top of the front break
and a point not more than 2 ½ in. (64 mm) below the top of the rear
Bend: A back with the shoulder cut off at right angles to the
backbone line at the break of the fore flank. (OYR’P in Fig. 1.)
Biff: To beat a salted hide that has been placed on a rack, in
order to shake loose salt from the hair.
Bisulfiting: The treatment of hot solutions of vegetable tanning
extracts with sodium bisulfite in order to increase their solubility and
rate of take-up by hides.
Bleaching: (1) the process of removing oxidized tannins and
insoluble materials from the surface layers of leather, in order to
prevent crackiness of the grain. Bleaching is performed by dipping the
leather in a weak alkaline solution to render the tannin readily
soluble, dipping in water, neutralizing in weak acid solution and
washing. (2) the process of lightening the color of chrome leather by
treating with synthetic tannins or precipitating white pigment in the
surface of the leather.
Bleeding: The transfer of materials exuded from leather to other
materials that come in contact with it.
Blocking: The adhesion between touching layers of leather such as
occurs under moderate pressures during storage or use.
Bloom: A light-colored deposit of ellagic acid appearing on the
grain surface of leather tanned with certain pyrogallol tannins, such as
myrabalans, valonia, and dividivi. That appearance may be objectionable
for some purposes, but bloom does not significantly affect the other
physical properties of the leather.
Blucher: A laced shoe in which the quarters extend forward over
the vamp and are left loose at the inner edge.
Blue: Usually in the phrase “in the blue” applied to hides or
skins that have been chrome-tanned but not dyed nor fat-liquored.
Blushing: Dulling or mottling of the finish of the leather
resulting from condensed moisture during the drying of the finish. Also
referred to a lacquer bloom.
Boarded Leather: Leather on which a false or accentuated grain
has been produced by folding the grain side and working the leather back
and forth. Hand boarding is done with a curved cork board attached to
the worker’s arm and rolled over the folded skin.
Boardy: Adjective applied to stiff, inflexible leather.
Bottom Filler: The material used for filling the cavity between
the insole and outsole of shoes. The most widely used materials are made
of granulated cork and resinous binder. Hot-process fillers are softened
by heating, applied to the cavity, and hardened by cooling. Cold-process
fillers contain a solvent, which evaporates after application, allowing
the filler to harden. Other fillers used are a mixture of rubber latex,
cork, and solvent; slab cork cut to shape; sponge rubber and cork sheer;
impregnated felt; and laminated wood cut to shape.
Box Toe: A stiffener used to maintain the shape of a shoe toe,
preserve the toe room allowed within the shoe, and protect the wearer’s
toes from blows. Rigid box toes are made of leather, thermoplastic
resin-impregnated fiber, solvent-softened plastic-impregnated fiber, and
water-softened starch-impregnated buckram. Flexible box toes are made of
thermoplastic cork combination with fabric backing, and plastic
laminates placed between sheets of fabric. Soft box toes are made of
rubberized felt or fabric. Metal toes are used in some safety shoes.
BRANDS: A mark of a simple, easily recognized pattern made by
burning the cattle’s skin with a hot iron. Used for identification
purposes, brands are normally cut out of the hides and do not appear on
Break: (1) Heavy leather – the places, in the areas where the
fore shank and hind shank join the body of the hide, where the texture
of the leather changes quite sharply from the firm, close weave of the
bend to a loose, open texture. (2 Shoe upper leather – the superficial
wrinkling formed when the leather is bent, grain inward, with a radius
of curvature like that formed at the vamp of a shoe in walking. “Fine
break” - up to 20 wrinkles per inch – is an indication of good quality.
“Coarse break” – as low a 6 wrinkles per inch – indicates poor quality.
Adjectives commonly used to describe this characteristic are “tight,”
“fine,” “loose,” “coarse,” and “pipey,” or “flanky.”
Brining: A process of curing hides by soaking with salt solution
Bronzing: Excessive concentration of crystallized dyestuff on the
surface of the leather tending to give a metallic sheen.
Brush Coloring: The application of dye-stuff to leather with a
brush or swab, the leather being laid on a table. Also called table
Buck Sides: Cattlehide shoe upper leather finished to resemble
Buckskin: Leather from deer and elk skins, used for shoes,
gloves, and clothing. Only the outer cut of the skin from which the
surface grain has been removed may be correctly defined as “genuine
buckskin.” Leather finished from the split or under-cut of deerskin must
be described as “split buckskin.”
Buffalo Leather: Leather made from the hides of domesticated
water buffalo of the Far East, not the American bison.
Buffing: (l.) Knife or Abrasive – Removing minor blemishes from
the grain with a knife or abrasive. (See also Snuffed Top Grain.) (2.)
Emery Wheel – Producing a velvet surface on leather, usually with an
emery wheel. (3.) Buffing Leather – A light cut of the grain portion
used for bookbindings, pocketbooks, etc., but not for upholstery.
Bullhides: Hides from bulls are characterized by thick and rough
head, neck, and shoulders, and by coarse flanks. They are often poor in
quality and heavy, ranging from 60 lb (27 kg) up.
Butcher Cuts: Damage to hides caused by improper removal from the
animal; usually in the form of cuts or furrows on the flesh side.
Butt: That part of the hide or skin covering the rump or hind
part of the animal.
Composite Sample: A portion of leather, which may be the scraps
from the cuttings of physical test specimens, that has been taken from
each of the sample units constituting the sample. The leather is
composited as specified for the purpose of testing a lot for chemical
Cabretta: Skin of hair sheep, chiefly Brazilian, used principally
for glove and garment leathers. Term probably derived from Spanish
“cabrito” or similar Portuguese or Italian word. (See also Cape
Calf Leather: Leather made from the skins of young cattle from a
few days up to a few months old, the skins weighing up to 15 lbs ((6.8
kg). It is finer-grained, lighter in mass, and more supple than cowhide
or kip leathers.
Cape, Skin or Leather: Skin of South African hair sheep.
Fine-grained leather, superior to wool sheep for gloves and garments.
Loosely applied to all hair sheep, but should be qualified to show
origin, if other than South African. (It is uncertain whether the term
is derived from “Caper” (Goat) or from “Cape Town.”)
Carding: A type of tannage of side leather used on the cards of
Carpincho Leather: Leather from the skin of the carpincho, a
large South American rodent. The skin is used in making glove leather,
usually chrome-tanned and washable. In the glove-leather trade, it is
classified as a pigskin. It resembles pigskin in appearance, a
characteristic being the occurrence of bristle holes in straight-line
groups, usually with 4 to 7 holes in a group.
Case Leather: A general term for leathers used in traveling bags
and suitcases. It does not include the light leathers employed for
women’s fancy handbags. The staple material for bag and case leather at
present is leather made from the hides of animals of the bovine species,
but heavy sealskins and goatskins are also used.
Case (Shoe): Containers in which shoes are packed for shipment,
generally containing 12, 24, or 36 pairs of men’s shoes and 18 or 36
pairs of women’s shoes.
Cemented Process: A method of shoe construction in which the
outsole is attached by cementing instead of stitching, nailing, or
pegging; used chiefly for women’s shoes.
Chain Stitch: A single-thread stitch, characterized by the fact
that the entire thread may be pulled out when one stitch is cut or
Chamois Leather: A soft, pliable absorbent leather which is
recognized in this country and abroad as being made from the inner side
of a sheepskin, known technically as a flesher, from which the outer or
grain side as been split prior to tanning. While chamois leather is now
tanned by the classic straight fish oil tannage, it is not the intent of
this definition to exclude other tannages which may be developed that
will commercially produce leather from sheepskin fleshers meeting all
the recognized performance characteristics common to commercial
oil-tanned chamois leather. Some of the more common characteristics of
oil-tanned chamois leather which are not changed appreciably by repeated
washing of the leather are flexibility, high water absorption, low water
retention after wringing, rapid rate of wetting, speed and efficiency of
filtering water from gasoline, ease with which the leather may be
cleaned without materially changing the above characteristics, and
non-irritating effect when in contact with the skin.
Channel: A slanting cut made around the edge of an outsole or
insole to provide a groove for the stitching and to keep the line of
thread below the surface of the leather. Soles so stitched are called
Checking: The separation of leather or composition heel lifts
from each other.
Chestnut Extract: A tanning material made from the wood of the
domestic chestnut tree and used in tanning heavy leathers.
Chrome Retan: Term applied to leather tanned first with chromium
salts, then retanned with vegetable extracts.
Chrome Retannage: Retannage with chromium salt.
Chrome Tannage: Tannage of leather with chromium compounds.
Chrome-tanned leather is often distinguished from other kinds by its
greenish color, particularly of a cut edge.
Coarse Rough Fiber: Fibers of flesh surfaces of leather or splits
which are frayed, separated, and present a shaggy appearance.
Cockle: Hard, firm nodules appearing on the necks and bellies of
sheepskin that are caused by keds.
Collagen: The principle fibrous protein in the corium or derma
layer of a hide or skin.
Collar Leather: A subdivision of harness leather, made from very
light cattlehide in full thickness, or of cattlehide splits, and used
for covering horse collars.
Colorado Steer: A side-branded steerhide, not necessarily from
Comber Leather: A steerhide leather heavily stuffed and usually
boarded, used in textile combing machines. (See also Apron Leathers.)
Combination-tanned: Formerly tanned with a blend of vegetable
extracts. Today tanned with two or more types of tanning materials, such
as chromium compounds and vegetable extracts, or chromium compounds and
Cordovan: Leather made from the tight firm portion of horse
butts. It has very fine pores and characteristic waxy finish and is very
Corduroy Flesh: A rough condition of the flesh side of leather
caused by failure to remove the twitching muscles.
Corrected Grain: Portions of the grain surface lightly abraded
with emery wheel or sandpaper, so as to lessen the effect of grain
damage. (See Snuffed Grain.)
Counter: A piece of stiffening material inserted between the
lining and the outside of a shoe upper at the back of the shoe.
Materials used are leather (sometimes sizing), pasted splits or
shavings, combination splits or shavings with a canvas layer,
fiberboard, pulpboard (usually with heavy sizing), cork steel for safety
shoes, and other miscellaneous materials.
Counter Pocket: A piece of lining leather sewed on the inside of
an unlined shoe at the back part to conceal the counter.
Country Hide: Hides taken off by butchers and farmers; their
quality is usually lower than that of packer hides because they are
removed by less skilled hands and are not cured as well as packer hides.
Cowhide: Term specifically applied to leather made from hides of
cows, although it is sometimes loosely used to designate any leather
tanned from hides of animals of the bovine species.
Crocking: The transfer of finish or color when leather is rubbed
with a wet or dry cloth.
Crop: A side with the belly trimmed off. (See OO’P’P in Fig. 1)
Crushed Leather: Leather made from chrome vegetable-retanned
kidskins with the grain accentuated by boarding or other process.
Crust: Used as an adjective or in the phrase ”in the crust,”
refers to vegetable-tanned leather that has been tanned but not
Curing: Treating raw hides or skins so as to minimize
putrefaction and bacterial action but to enable the skins to be wet back
conveniently in preparation for tanning. Common methods of curing
include green-salting, brining, and drying. Green-salting is
accomplished by the addition of salt (NaCl) crystals to the flesh
surface of the flayed hide. Brining is accomplished by the use of a
saturated sodium chloride solution. Drying, not commercially practiced
in the United States, involves exposure of the flayed hide to either sun
or shade-drying conditions. Some stock, especially de-wooled sheepskins,
is preserved in a sulfuric acid-sodium chloride brine. (See Brining, dry
salting, dry pickling, green salting, and pickling.)
Curing Temperature: The temperature at which noticeable curling
occurs on gradually heating a leather specimen in water.
Currying: A process of treating tanned hides with oils and
greases to prepare them for belting, sole, harness leathers, etc.
Cut Stock: Bottom stock for shoes, such as soles, taps, lifts,
blocks, and strips of sole leather.
Delivery: Leather or fabricated leather articles presented at any
one time for inspection or test.
Davey Tip: In glovemaking, a tip of a finger made with a
Deep Buff: The first cut under the top grain, hand buff, or
machine buff on which no traces on the grain remain.
Deerskin: In glove leather, a deerskin tanned and finished with
the grain surface intact.
Defects: Defects of leather include fiber quality, soft spots,
brands, cockle, scratches, wrinkles, insect bites, grain damages, grub
damage, cuts, skiving defects, fleshiness, and slack tannage.
Degrained Leather: Leather from which the grain has been removed
after tanning, by splitting, abrading, or other process.
Degras, Moellon: The partially oxidized oil pressed out of
sheepskin after tannage with cod or other marine oil. (See also Moellon.)
Doeskin: Commercial term for white leather from sheep or
lambskin, tanned with alum or formaldehyde or both.
Double-dressed: As applied to chamois skins, with the grain
removed and buffed or sueded on both surfaces.
Double Shoulder: The fore part of the hide cut off at right
angles to the backbone line at the break of the fore flank, with the
belly cut off and the head cut off behind the horn holes (See R’UT’S’ in
Doubler: An interlining between the toe lining and vamp of the
shoe, to aid in preserving the shape during wear. It is usually made of
cotton twill or drill.
Drawn Grain: Shrunken, shriveled, or wrinkled grain surface of
leather, particularly in the flanks.
Drum Dyeing: The application of dyestuffs to leather by immersion
of the leather in a revolving drum containing the dyestuff solutions, as
contrasted with table dyeing.
Drumhead Leather: See Parchment.
Dry Pickling: A method of curing skins from wool sheep with
sodium sulfate and sodium chloride.
Dry Salting: A method of curing hides in which the hides are
first greensalted and then dried.
Dubbing (Dubbin): (1) A mixture of oils and fats for stuffing
leather. (2) Army dubbing – A composition of oil, tallow, wax, and
aluminum stearate used for restoring fatty matter to military footwear
in the field.
Examination: An element of investigation, without the use of
special laboratory appliances or procedures, of supplies and services to
determine conformance to those specified requirements which can be
determined by such investigation. Examination is generally
nondestructive and includes, but is not limited to visual, auditory,
olfactory, tactile, gustatory, and other investigations, simple physical
manipulation, gauging, and measurement.
Electrified Shearling: Shearling or lambskin in which the wool
has been straightened by a special process.
Elk Leather: Trade term used to designate chrome-tanned
cattlehide for uppers of work shoes, hunting boots, some children’s
shoes, and others requiring flexibility and durability. More properly,
Elk-finished Cowhide. Leather made from elkhide is known as “buckskin.”
Elongation: The extension between bench marks produced by a
tension force applied to a specimen. It is expressed by a percentage of
the original distance between the marks on the unstretched specimen.
(Also known as Stretch.)
Embossed Leather: Leather that has been ornamented with a
geometrical or fancy design by heavy pressure of a machine.
Extract: A liquid, powder, or solid concentrate of vegetable
tannin obtained by evaporating a solution of the tannin material
obtained from natural sources.
Eyelet: An annular ring of metal or other material inserted in
leather to provide a durable ring for lacing. Regular eyelets are driven
in from the outside of the leather. Blind eyelets are concealed on the
inner side of the shoe upper, leaving the lace hole with a raw edge on
Fancy Leather: Leather made from hides and skins of all kinds
that have commercial importance and value primarily because of grain, or
distinctive finish whether natural or the result of processing. Major
classifications include characteristic natural grains, such as reptile
and aquatic leather; simulated natural grains; and decorative finished,
such as geometrical patterns and metallic finishes. Processing may be
graining, printing, embossing, ornamenting (including in gold, silver,
and aluminum finishes), or any other finishing operation enhancing the
appeal of leather.
Fatliquor: An emulsion of oils or greases in water, usually with
an emulsifying agent, used to lubricate the fibers of leather.
Fat Wrinkle: Wrinkles on the grain of leather caused by fat
deposits in the live animal. Also known as neck wrinkles.
Fiberboard: A firm, somewhat flexible, composition material in
sheet form, made from new long vegetable fibers. Used for counters,
insoles, midsoles, and heel lifts. The term is often loosely applied to
boards made from scrap material or short-fibered stock, such as
chip-board, which has inferior physical properties in the uses
mentioned. Leather-board is a type of fiberboard in which the fiber
content is at leather 75 percent leather, usually with asphaltic or
Finders’ Sole Leather: One of the two principal types of sole
leather. It has less flexibility and compressibility than factory sole
leather and is more suitable for use in shoe repair. (See also Factory
Finish: Materials applied to the grain and sometimes split
surface of the leather to cover blemishes, create smoothness and give
uniformity of color and appearance which may vary from dull to glossy.
Flaky Finish: Appearance of crazing, checking or flaking with or
without separation of finish film.
Flanky: A characteristic of loose grain leather that forms coarse
wrinkles on bending with the grain inward.
Flesh: The inner side of hide or skin. Also used as an adjective
referring to that side.
Flesher: The flesh split or under-cut of a sheepskin, split
before tanning. (See also Chamois.)
Flint: Usually in phrases “flint-dried” or “flint hides.” Air or
sun-dried without other curing.
Formaldehyde Tannage: Tannage with formaldehyde, used especially
for white leathers and washable glove leathers.
Fourchette: A fork or V-shaped piece of leather used in making
the fingers of a glove. Pronounced “four’ jet” in the trade.
Foxing: The back part of a shoe upper from shank to heel.
French Kid: Leather tanned from kidskin by an alum or vegetable
Frigorifico Hides: Cattlehides from South American slaughtering
and freezing plants, cured in brine and salted.
Frizing (Friezing): In tanning Mocha glove leather, a process of
removing the grain surface involving severe liming for not less than a
month, during which the elastin structure of the grain layer is
Front: The forepart of a hide or skin. Particularly in horsehide
leather, the front is used for garments, baseballs, etc. It is the part
left when the butt is cut off about 22 in. (559 mm) from the root of the
Full Grain: Having the original grain surface of the skin.
Gauntlet: The part of a glove covering the wrist.
Gem Duck: A heavy duck fabric cemented to insoles so as to support
and strengthen the insole lip.
Gill Box Leather: A leather used in textile machinery , similar
to Comber leather. (See also Apron Leathers.)
Glazed Finish: Produced by polishing grain surface under heavy
pressure of a roller of agate, glass or steel. Infrequently made by a
varnish or shellac coating.
Glazed (Glace) Kid: Kid leather, usually chrome tanned, with a
highly polished, smooth finish.
Glove Leather: Term covering two distinct classes: (1) the
leather used for dress gloves, including those for street, riding, and
sports wear. Tanned predominately from hair sheep, wool sheep, and lamb
skins and to a lesser degree from deer, pig, goat, and kid skins, and
(2) the leather used for utilitarian or work gloves and made of a
variety of hides and skins, of which the most important are horsehides,
cattlehide splits, calfskins, sheepskins, and pigskins.
Glove Splits: Split chrome-tanned cattlehide leather used for
Goodyear Welt: The most widely used type of shoe construction. A
hidden chain-stitched inseam holds together the upper, welt, insole, and
lining. A lock-stitched outseam attaches the outsole to the welt.
Goring: A woven fabric with rubber threads forming an elastic
material. It is used as an insert in footwear.
Grain: The outer or hair side of a hide or skin. Also used as an
adjective referring to that side.
Grained Leather: Any leather on which the original natural grain,
through any method, process, or manipulation, has been changed or
Green Salting: A process of curing hides in which they are
treated with salt on the flesh side and stacked in piles to cure for a
period of ten days or more.
Grub Hole: A hole through the hide caused by the penetration of
the grub of the warble fly.
Gunn Pattern: A type of welder’s gloves.
Gusset Leather: A soft flexible leather used for gussets in
shoes, bags, and cases.
Hair-on Leather: Leather tanned without removing the hair from
the skin or hide.
Hand Buffs: A term used to describe upholstery leather of the
same type as full top grain except that the surface of the hide is
lightly snuffed or sandpapered all over. Such snuffing removes only the
top of the hair follicles. Also known as Snuffed Top Grain, Corrected
Top Grains, and Top Grain Snuffed.
Harness Leather: A self-explanatory term sometimes so defined as
to include collar and saddlery leathers. Harness Leather, including the
related items mentioned, is practically all made of cattlehides,
vegetable-tanned, except for a considerable quantity of pigskins used
for making saddle seats.
Hat Leather: Usually sheepskin or calfskin for sweatbands of
hats. The grain splits of sheepskin are vegetable-tanned for this
Head: That portion of the hide from the snout to the flare into
Heavy Leather: A somewhat indefinite term, generally understood
to include vegetable-tanned sole, belting, strap, and mechanical
leathers made from unsplit cattlehides. More recently it also refers to
thick side leathers.
Heel Base: That part of the heel next to the sole, usually
concave to fit the heel seat.
Heel Breast: The forward face of the heel, often concave towards
Heel Lift: A single layer of leather or other material forming
part of a built-up heel.
Heel Seat: The part of the sole to which the heel is attached,
often beveled to form a rounded top which fits into the concave heel
Hide: The pelt of a large animal, such as cow, horse, etc. Also
used interchangeably with skin. (See also Kip and Skin.)
Hide Grades: Standard hide grades, take-up and delivery practice
are given in the booklet, “Trade Practices for Proper Packer Cattlehide
Delivery,” issued by Leather Industries of America (202) 342-8086 and
U.S. Hide, Skin & Leather Association (703) 841-9656,
Hide Powder: Purified, shredded rawhide as a reagent in the
determination of tannins.
Hide Powder, Standard: Any lot of hide powder officially approved
by the American Leather Chemists Association.
Hide Substance: The protein content of leather determined by
multiplying percent Kjeldahl nitrogen by the factor 5.62.
Horsehide Leather: Leather made from the hide of a horse or a
colt. (See also Cordovan and Front.)
Hydraulic Leathers: A collective term sometimes used for the
cattlehide leather – either vegetable, chrome, or combination tannages –
with special stuffing added, and employed in pump valves, as piston
packing, etc. Also known as Gasket Leather.
Imitation Leather: Fabric coated with rubber or synthetic resin and
embossed, printed, or otherwise finished to resemble leather. Some
imitation leathers may contain leather fibers or other protein fibers.
India-tanned: Term applies to hides and skins from India,
considered as a semitanned raw material and generally retanned in the
United States before finishing.
Indian-tanned: Combination-tanned with alum and vegetable
Inseam: (1.) Shoemaking – The hidden seam of a Goodyear-welt shoe
holding together the welt, upper, lining, and insole. (2.) Glovemaking –
A seam on the inside of the finger.
Insole: A sole of leather or other material cut the size and
shape of the bottom of the last. In some shoe construction the insole
surface forms the inside of the bottom of the shoe; in others it is
covered with a sock lining of thin leather or other material which
conceals stitching, nails, etc. Also known as Innersole.
Iron: A term used for measuring thickness of sole leather. One
iron equals 1/48 in. (0.53 mm).
Iron Tannage: Tannage with salts of iron.
Kangaroo: Leather made from the hide of the Australian kangaroo,
usually chrome-tanned and with a glazed finish. Resembles glazed kid but
has a fine grain and is one of the strongest of all leathers.
Kid: Originally referring to leathers made from the skins of
immature goats, the term is now rather loosely applied to glove and shoe
leathers made from goatskins.
Kip: Skin from a bovine animal in size between a calf and a cow,
weighing in green-salted condition from 15 to 35 lb (6.8 to 15.9 kg).
Lace Leather: A form of rawhide leather (from cattlehides) for
lacing together sections of power-transmission belts; sometimes prepared
also with an alum and oil, chrome, or combination tannage.
Laces, Shoe: The commonest types are cotton and mercerized cotton
woven in tubular form or braided, and leather, used mainly for sport
shoes, bunting boots, etc. Fabric laces are usually tipped with metal or
plastic to permit easy insertion and to prevent raveling.
Lambskin Leather: Term applied to leather from either lambskins
or sheepskins, which are practically undistinguishable after tanning.
Larrigan Leather: Oil-tanned light cattlehides used for
Latigo Leather: A type of lace leather, alum and vegetable
tanned, used in saddlery.
Leather: A general term for hide or skin that still retains its
original fibrous structure more or less intact, and that has been
treated so as to be imputrescible even after treatment with water. The
hair or wool may or may not have been removed. Certain skins, similarly
treated or dressed, and without the hair removed, are termed “fur”. No
product may be described as leather if its manufacture involves breaking
down the original skin structure into fibers, powder or other fragments
by chemical or mechanical methods, or both, and reconstituting these
fragments into sheets or other forms.
Leatherboard: A type of fiberboard in which the fiber content is
at least 75% leather, usually with asphaltic or resinous binder.
Levant: Term applied to goatskin on which the grain pattern is
accentuated in tannage. Goatskin embossed to give a Levant pattern is
properly described as “Levant-grained goatskin.” Sheep, seal, and other
skins bearing this pattern should not be described as “Levant leather”
but as “Levant-grained sheepskin,” etc.
Lining Leather: Any leather used for making shoe linings which
includes sheep, lamb, kid, goat, cattle, calf, kip and splits.
Linings: Usually refers to quarter lining or vamp lining. Quarter
lining is upper lining at the back of the shoe, extending forward to the
vamp line. Lightweight leathers are usually used, kid and sheep for
women’s shoes, calf and kip for men’s shoes. Coated fabrics resembling
leather in appearance are also used. In high shoes cotton drill or twill
is often used. Vamp lining extends from the vamp line to the toe. Cotton
fabrics are most widely used; leather is used for punched or perforated
Littleway: A type of shoe construction in which a machine-driven
staple holds the upper and lining to the insole, and the outsole is
fastened to the insole by a channel-stitched lock stitch or by
cementing. A variation is the Uco process, in which the insole, upper,
and lining are fastened with cement.
Load: (1) The amount of nonprotein material in vegetable-tanned
leather. (2) the amount of tannin in vegetable-tanned leather.
Loading: The addition of glucose, magnesium sulfate, or other
materials necessary to give leather the physical properties needed for
working in modern shoe machinery. Also known as Filling or Stuffing.
Lock Stitch: A double-thread stitch that locks the threads
together within the material. It is distinguished in service by the fact
that breaking one stitch does not permit the seam to be raveled out.
Lot (Inspection Lot): A collection of units of product from which
a sample is to be drawn and inspected to determine conformance with the
acceptability criteria, and is to be accepted or rejected as a whole. It
may differ from a collection of units designated as a lot for other
purposes for example, production, shipment, etc.
Lot Size: The number of units of product in a lot.
Machine Buffs: That cut of the hide from which a buffing of
approximately 1/64 in (0.4 mm) (1oz) in thickness has been removed from
the grain. This should leave a portion of the grain on approximately the
Mange: A parasitic skin disease of animals, resulting in leather
with coarse and scarred grain, prominent hair pockets, and soft spots in
Manufacturer’s Leather: See Factory Sole Leather.
Mat Finish: A smooth, dull finish on upper leather. Sometimes
written Matte Finish.
Matadero Hides: Argentinean cattlehides corresponding roughly to
city butcher or small packer hides in the United States.
McKay: A type of shoe construction. The upper is tack-, staple-,
or cement-lasted and the outsole is attached by a chain-stitched seam.
The stitches are concealed by a channel in the outsole and pass through
the outsole, upper, lining, and insole.
Mean: The arithmetical average of a set of numbers.
Mechanical Leather: A collective term for many types of leather
used in connection with textile and other machinery.
Median: In the numerical values for a given property are arranged
in ascending order, the median is (1) the middle value of the series if
the number os values is odd; (2) the mean of the two middle values if
the number of values is even.
Meter Leather: A specialty leather made from sheepskins, treated
to make it impermeable and used for the measuring bags of gas meters.
Midsole: A sole placed between the outsole and the insole.
Milling: A natural softening process in which leather is tumbled
in a drum.
Mineral Tanned: Tanned with chemical compounds of mineral origin,
without the use of vegetable tanning materials. Tannage with chromium
compounds is the principal type of mineral tannage.
Moccasin: A shoe or slipper characterized by a single piece of
leather for the vamp which extends all the way under foot. The vamp has
a U-shaped throat to which the vamp plug is attached with a butt seam.
It may have an attached outsole of harder leather. Imitation moccasins
often have the upper of moccasin-type construction but the Good year
welt or other standard type of bottom construction.
Mocha Leather: Leather from any variety of hair sheep. After the
grain has been removed by a liming process known as frizing, the fine
fibers below the grain are sueded.
Moellon: Synthetic moellon is made by direct oxidation of cod or
other fish oils (see also Degras).
Montpelier Pattern: A type of welder’s gloves.
Morocco Grain: Embossed imitation of the natural goat grain on
other kinds of leather.
Morocco Leather: Vegetable-tanned fancy goatskin leather having a
distinctive pebbled grain.
Mouton: A sheepskin shearling tanned and finished for use as fur;
usually with wool straightened.
Mukluk Leather: Leather usually made from deer, elk, or similar
skins. It is tanned white with formaldehyde, alum, or syntans. It is
highly permeable to moisture vapor and retains its flexibility at very
Mean: Arithmetical average of a set of numbers.
Nailed Process: A method of construction of men’s work shoes in
which the upper is lasted to the insole with tacks that clinch against
the metal bottom of the last. The insole and outsole, previously
stitched together, are attached by nails passing through the entire
bottom and clinched.
Nap Finish: A woolly and fuzzy finish, such as suede or reversed
Napa Leather: Chrome-,Alum-, or combination-tanned sheepskin
glove leather, drum colored.
Native Hide: A cattlehide without a brand.
Natural MARKINGS: The subtle markings on leather are analogous to
finger prints. They distinguish genuine leather from man made materials.
Other marks which can appear on the surface of leather are healed
scratches and scars, barbed wire marks, stretch marks, vein marks,
wrinkles, brands and insect holes.
NECK WRINKLES: Natural creases from the neck and shoulder areas
of the hide.
NUBUCK: This is a full aniline that has been sanded or buffed in
order to create a nap. This is atop grain leather, therefore it is not
considered a split or suede.
NUDE FINISH: A leather that is usually vat dyed, but has little
or no protective coat.
Nuclear Sole: A generic term for synthetic sole materials of the
butadiene-styrene type, along with other ingredients. (Note. – Neolite,
a trade-mark name for a particular brand, is often used as a generic
term for soles of this type.)
Normal Inspection: Inspection that is used when there is no
statistically significant evidence that the quality of the product being
submitted is better or poorer than the specified quality level.
Oak Tannage: Originally the tannage of leather entirely, or
nearly so, with oak bark; later the tannage with a blend containing oak
tannin. Now loosely applied to any tannage of heavy leather with
Offal: Parts of hides not used for standard grades of outsole
leathers; the heads, shoulders, and bellies of heavy leather.
Oiling Off: Coating the surface of wet leather with oil before
allowing it to dry.
Oil Tannage: Tannage with cod oil or other oxidizable oil,
usually of marine origin.
Ooze: Traditionally, vegetable-tanned suede leather. Now also
refers to other tannages sueded or napped on the grain side.
Orthopedic Leathers: A general term for the types of leather used
in the manufacture of artificial limbs, braces, etc., for orthopedic
purpose. The leathers may range from chamois and horsehide glove to case
and strap leathers.
Ounce: A term used to indicate weight or substance of certain
kinds of leather, such as upholstery and bag and case leathers. In
theory it is based on the assumption that 1 sq. ft. of leather will
weigh a certain number of ounces and will uniformly be of a certain
thickness; hence a 3-oz. Leather theoretically would be 1 sq. ft. of
leather that would weigh 3 oz. In practice this varies because of
specific gravity of tanning materials used, and for that reason a
splitter’s gauge has been adopted which controls the commercial
thickness of leather when sold by the square foot. An ounce is
equivalent to thickness to 1/64 (0.0156 in.) (0.4 mm).
Outseam: In glovemaking, with the seam on the outside of the
Outsole: The bottom sole thickness, the surface of which is
exposed to wear. Also known as Outersole.
Pac (Pac Leather): A type of footwear used by lumbermen, hunters,
and others for outdoor wear, especially in northern climates. It is
often of a moccasin type, and the upper usually extends to between the
ankle and the knee. Some pacs are made with rubber bottoms and uppers to
a height of an inch or more, the remainder being of leather. The leather
used in pacs is usually heavily stuffed for water resistance.
Packer Hides: Hides from meatpacking houses.
Packing Leather: See Hydraulic Leather.
Parchment: Traditionally, alum-tanned sheepskin or slunk used for
special documents, drum heads, lamp shades, etc.
Patent Leather: Shoe leather with glossy, impermeable finish,
produced by successive coats of drying oil or varnish.
Pebbled Grain: An embossed-leather grain finish resembling a
pebbled surface, ranging from fine pebbled Morocco goat to heavy scotch
grain upper leather.
Peccary: A wild boar found in Central and South America. The skin
is usually chrome-tanned and shaved to light weight for glove leathers.
It is distinguishable from pigskin and carpincho leather by the fact
that bristle holes occur in straight-line groups of three.
Pelt: A raw skin with hair. Usually refers to fur animals.
Persians: India-tanned hair sheepskins.
pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. A
solution at pH 7 is neutral; lower numbers indicate increasing acidity;
higher numbers, increasing alkalinity.
Picker Leather: Leathers used for pickers in textile machinery
and having a wide range of properties. Some are hard rawhide buffalo
leathers, others glycerin-treated rawhide, and still others belting
Pickle: To treat unhaired hides with a solution of salt and acid
in order to prepare them for mineral tannage or for temporary
preservation until they reach the tannery.
Pigment-finished Leather: Leather finished with compounds
containing opaque pigments which more or less conceal the grain pattern.
Split leathers are often finished with pigments and embossed to simulate
Pigskin: Leather made from the skin of pigs or hogs. In the glove
leather trade “”Pigskin” includes peccary and carpincho. (Note. – The
popular name “pigskin” for a football is a misnomer, as footballs are
generally made from cattlehide leather.)
Pin Seal: Natural grain sealskin tanned for fancy leather.
Imitations on other skins should be described as “pin-grain sheepskin,”
“pin-grain goatskin,” etc.
Pipey: See Flanky.
Pit: Tiny depression or hole on the grain surface of leather, due
to natural causes or manufacturing.
Pitch: The inclination of a shoe heel from the vertical. It
should be such that the heel will tread flat.
Plating: Pressing leather with a heated metal plate, usually
smooth, under high pressure.
Pocket-shaped: As applied to chamois skins, a skin trimmed in the
form of a rectangle with the two corners at one end rounded.
Pre-welt: A type of shoe construction, generally for children’s
shoes, in which the upper and welt are joined by a chain-stitch seam,
the insole and the upper are cemented together, and the outsole is
lock-stitched to the welt.
Quarter: The upper part of the shoe upper, above the vamp line.
Quebracho: A tanning material extracted from the wood of a South
Quirk: A small triangular piece of leather used between the
fingers of a glove.
Rand: A strip of leather used around the edge of a leather or
composition heel at the base to fill the gap between heel and sole. It
is beveled on the inside to a thin edge.
Rawhide: Cattlehide that has been dehaired, limed, often stuffed
with oil or grease, and has sometimes undergone other preparation, but
has not been tanned. It is used principally for mechanical purposes,
such as belt lacings, loom pickers, gaskets, pinions, and gears, and for
hand luggage, shoe laces, snowshoes, etc.
Raw Streak: An untanned center layer of leather, visible in cross
section as a light-colored streak, especially as applied to heavy
Rejection Number: A number, "R", such that if the number of
defective inspection units in the inspection sample taken from the lot
is equal to or greater than "R", the lot should be rejected.
Rejection of a Lot: The disapproval of a lot as not conforming to
a contract or specification, or both.
Retan: Term applied to leather tanned first with mineral
compounds and then with vegetable tannins as alum-retan lace leather or
chrome-retan upper leather.
Retannage: A modifying second tannage, applied after intermediate
operations following the primary tannage.
Reverse Retan: Term applied to leather tanned first with
vegetable tannin and then with chromium compounds.
Rigging Leather: A strong, flexible, vegetable-tanned leather.
Roan: A sheepskin, not split.
Roller Leather: Vegetable-tanned sheep or calfskins used for cots
and covers on the upper rolls of cotton-spinning machinery.
Rolling: A tannery operation in which the grain surfaces
compressed and smoothed under pressure by a metal roller.
Rough: Term applied to cattlehide leathers tanned but not
finished. Also known as Rough-tanned and In The Rough. See also Crust.
Russet: A term of varied meaning in the leather trade, since it
connotes both color and tannage. (1) Russet calf is the natural color of
unfinished calf leather resulting from tannage by vegetable extracts.
(2) Russet harness is a completely finished leather of bright, clean,
uniform color and finish. (3) Russet sheepskin is leather tanned in
cold-leached hemlock bark and used for shoe linings, with color
resulting from the hemlock. (4) Russet upholstery is leather tanned but
Russian Leather: Originally a Russian calfskin shoe leather,
distinguished by it odor of birch oil. Now, in the United States, a
fancy calfskin stock.
Sample: A sample consists of one or more units of product drawn from
a lot, the units of the sample being selected at random without regard
to their quality.
Sample for Examination: A specified number of units taken from a
lot for the purpose of visual, dimensional, or tactile inspection.
Sample for Test: A specified number of sample units taken for the
lot for the purpose of testing the lot for all physical and chemical
properties for which requirements are specified.
Sample Size: The number of units of product in the sample.
Sample Unit (For Testing): The total quantity of material
necessary to obtain one test result for each of the properties and
characteristics specified in the material specification or procurement
document. In testing of small package units, the Sample Unit may be a
package unit randomly selected from the material representing the lot.
In testing commodities in which the units are individually to small to
provide sufficient material for evaluating all the properties specified
in the material specification, the Sample Unit may be a sufficient
amount of the material, taken as an aggregate to provide the quantity of
Specimen: That portion of a sample unit required for a single
measurement of a given property or characteristic.
Saddle: In a shoe, a piece of leather extending from the shank
over the throat of the vamp and upward to the top of the quarter on both
Saddle Leather: Vegetable-tanned cattlehide leather for harness
and saddlery, usually of a natural tan shade and rather flexible.
Saladero Hides: Argentinean hides corresponding to small-packer
hides in the United States.
Salt Stain: Discoloration on the surface of hides and skins,
developed during the curing process.
Satin Finish: A dull finish. (See also Matt Finish.)
Sample: See Group A, Terms Applicable to Sampling Leather.
SEMI-ANILINE: A semi-aniline leather has been aniline dyed, then
slightly pigmented. Because pigment is solid, this type of leather
ensures color consistency while having stain and spill resistance.
Score: A cut made by a flaying knife on the flesh side during
removal of the skin from the carcass.
Scotch Grain: A pebbled pattern embossed on cattlehide or calf
Scud: Remnants of epithelial tissue, hair, dirt, etc., left in
the hair follicles after unhairing.
Scudding: Removal of scud from unhaired hides by scraping with a
blade, either by hand or machine.
Shank: That part of the shoe that comes under and supports the
arch of the foot. Shank also refers to leg positions of hide pattern.
(See Fig. 1.)
Shank Piece: A reinforcement for the shank, placed between insole
and outsole, usually made of metal, wood, leather, or fiberboard.
Sharkskin: Leather made from the top grain of the skins of
sharks. It has various natural grain markings. The term should not be
applied to leather made from other skins and embossed.
Shearling: Leather made from sheepskin that has been sheared
shortly before slaughter, the short wool being left on the skin when
Shell: A portion from the butt end of a horsehide, from which
leather of tight, firm fiber structure and fine grain is made. (See also
Shoe Laces: See Laces, Shoe.
Shoulder: A double shoulder is the fore part of the hide, cut off
at right angles to the backbone line at the break of the fore flank,
with the belly cut off and the head cut off behind the horn holes. (See
R’UT’S in Fig. 1.)
Shrinkage Temperature: The temperature at which measurable
shrinkage occurs when leather is gradually heated in an aqueous medium.
Side: A side is half a hide cut along the backbone line and with
the tail not more than 6 in. (152 mm) long. (See OO’WV in Fig. 1.)
Side Leather: Shoe upper leather made from the grain side of
cattlehides. The name comes from the practice of splitting the hide
along the backbone into two sides before tanning. The skins usually are
shaved on the flesh side to uniform thickness, and the grain is
Skeleton Insole Process: A method of shoe construction in which a
single-sole blank is split into two parts that form the outsole and
insole. The insole has a skeleton forefront, while the outsole has the
full thickness of the blank at the center. The insole is attached to the
last, and subsequent operations conform to the methods for sewed or
cemented shoes. Also shown as Single Sole Process, Sbicca-Del Mac, or
Del Welt Process.
Skin: The pelt of a small animal, such as calf, pig, or sheep,
etc. Also used interchangeably with hide.
Skiver: The grain split of a sheepskin used for hat sweatbands
and small leather goods.
Skiving: Cutting off a thin layer of leather to bring it to
Slab: (1) See Upholstery Leather. (2) Belting Leather – The parts
of a bend left after the centers are cut out. (See also Split.)
Slack Tannage: Incompletely tanned leather evidenced by a raw or
undertanned streak in the central layer of a piece. (2) A light tannage,
that is deliberately less than usual. (See also Defects.)
Slats: Dried, untanned sheepskins, with little or no wool.
Slipsole: A half-sole extending from the toe of the shoe to the
shank on the bottom surface.
Slunk: The skin of an unborn or prematurely born animal,
Snuffed Top Grain: (Also, Top Grain Snuffed) – Portions of the
grain surface lightly abraded with emery wheel or sandpaper so as to
lessen the effect of grain damage. (See Corrected Grain.)
Sock Lining: A piece of leather or coated fabric pasted over the
whole insole on the inside of the shoe to cover stitches, staples, etc.
Sole Leather Butt Bend: A double bend. (See PR’S’T in Fig. 1.)
Specimen: A portion of a unit taken for a single measurement of a
given property or characteristic.
Spew (Spue): Any constituent of leather that comes to the surface
in the form of a white crystallized or gummy deposit.
Split: A term used to describe the portion of hide or skin, split
into two or more thicknesses, other than the grain or hair side. Splits
are usually named according to their sequence of production, such as
“main,” “second,” or “slab” split (in case of upholstery leather);or for
the use in which they are to be put, such as “flexible” (for
innersoles): “glove,” “waxed” (for cheap shoe-uppers); “bag and case”
(finished with pyroxylin or pigment finish), sole, etc.
(Note: THE GUIDELINES WERE REVISED IN 1996 TO REFLECT THE LONGSTANDING
INDUSTRY PRACTICE AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION THAT THE TERM LEATHER DID NOT
INCLUDES SPLIT LEATHER, COATED OR NOT.
Fed. Reg. 51577, October 3, 1996, wherein the FTC states:
The Commission has decided that the term "leather" would also be
appropriate for split leather products. )
Splitting: (1) – Cutting leather into two or more layers. (See
also Upholstery Leather.) (2) – Cutting a hide into two sides
preparatory to tanning.
Spready Hide: A hide of large area in proportion to the weight. A
spready native steer measures at least 6 ft., 6 in. in width back of the
SQUARE FEET: Hides are measured by square feet, one yard is
approximately 17 square feet.
Standard Deviation: The square root of the mean square of the
deviations of a set of values from their mean. It is a measure of the
dispersion of the data.
Standard Hide Powder: Any lot of hide powder officially approved
by the American Leather Chemists Association.
Standard Kaolin: Kaolin from any lot officially approved by the
American Leather Chemists Association.
Strap Bellies: Thin, lightweight, vegetable-tanned cattlehide
bellies, rather flexible and with a low load, processed for the strap
Steerhide: See Hide Grades.
stitch-down: A type of shoe construction in which the upper is
turned out and fastened to the sole by stitching. In a single-sole
stitch-down, used chiefly for infants’ shoes, the upper is stitched
directly to the outsole. A double-sole stitch-down has the upper,
insole, outsole, and welt stitched together. The welt serves to protect
the upper at the lasting line. A three-sole stitch-down is similar to
the two-sole, the lining usually being cemented between insole and
Stitched Aloft: In sole attaching, sewn with no channel in the
sole, so that the thread shows on the bottom.
Strap Bellies: Thin, Light-weight, vegetable-tanned cattlehide
bellies, rather flexible and with a low load, processed for the strap
Stuffing: The process of incorporating grease in leather by
drumming the wet leather with warm, molten grease and oils.
SUEDE: Leather finished by buffing with an emery wheel to produce
a napped surface. Suede is not as durable as top grain leather.
Sulfated Oil: An oil modified by chemical reaction with sulfuric
acid to increase its solubility or ease of emulsification in water. Also
known as Sulfonated Oil.
Sulfite Cellulose: A by-product of paper mills, produced in
sulfating wood pulp, used as a tanning material; more correctly named
lignosulfonate since it does not contain cellulose.
Syntan: A synthetic organic tanning material.
Testing: An element of inspection, which generally denotes the
determination by technical means of the properties or elements of
supplies, or components thereof, and involves the application of
established scientific principles and procedures.
Tightened Inspection: Inspection under a sampling plan using the
same quality level as for normal inspection, but requiring more
stringent acceptance criteria.
Table Dyeing: The application of dyestuff to leather with a
brush, the leather being laid on a table. Also known as Brush Coloring.
Table Run: Used to describe leather that has not been sorted and
graded before selling by the tanner. Also known as Tannery Run or T.R.
Tack Hole: The hole near the top of the back seam in a shoe
upper, made by the assembling tack in the last operation.
Tannery Run: See Table Run.
Tawing: The old English term applied to the process of making
leather with alum as distinguished from tanning, which was originally
confined to vegetable tanning.
Tensile Strength: The force per unit of the original
cross-sectional area of the unstretched specimen which is applied at the
time of rupture of the specimen. It is calculated by by dividing the
breaking force in pounds by the cross-section of the unstretched
specimen in square inches.
Tip: The piece of leather covering the fore part of the vamp of
the shoe to the toe.
Top Grain: The first cut taken from the grain side of a split
hide from which nothing except the hair and associated epidermis has
Top Grain Snuffed: A term used to describe upholstery leather of
the same type as full top grain except that the surface of the hide is
lightly snuffed or sandpapered all over. Such snuffing removes only the
top of the hair follicles. Also known as Hand Buffs, Corrected Top
Grain, and Snuffed Top Grain.
Top Lift: The top layer (wearing surface) of lether, rubber, or
composition on the heel of a shoe.
Trim: The removal of parts of a raw hide not suitable for making
leather, such as portions from the outer edges of heads, shanks and
Turn Shoe: A single-sole, flexible shoe in which the sole and
upper are stitched together with a horizontal chain stitch while wrong
side out on the last.
Unit of Product: A piece of leather in the form in which it is
purchased, such as a single hide, skin, or part thereof; or a single
fabricated-leather article in the form in which it is purchased, such as
a counter, a pair of shoes, a gasket, etc.
Unit: See Group A, Terms Applicable to Sampling Leather.
Upholstery Leather: A general term for leathers used for
furniture, airplanes, busses, and automobiles. The staple raw material
in this country consists of spready cattlehides, split at least once and
in many cases two or three times. The top grain cuts go into the higher
grades and the splits into the lower grades.
Valve Leather: See Hydraulic Leather.
Vamp: The lower part of a shoe upper that is attached to the sole
Vat Dyeing: The application of dyestuffs to leather by immersion
of the leather in a vat containing the dyestuff solution.
Veal: A large calfskin, almost as large as a kip.
Vegetable Tanning: The conversion of rawhides into leather by
treating with water solutions of tannin extracted from materials of
Veiny: Appearance of leather characterized by many clearly
visible blood vessels, either closed or cut open by buffing or shaving
Vellum: See Parchment.
Vici Kid: Trade name for chrome-tanned, glazed-kid leather.
Wallaby: Leather from skins of the wallaby, small and
medium-sized Australian kangaroo.
Walrus: Leather from the hides of walrus. Walrus hide is very
thick and is used for buffing wheels. When split it is used for bag
leather. Split walrus and seal leather are practically
indistinguishable, and “walrus leather” in the traveling-goods industry
is used to refer to sealskin leather on which a simulated walrus grain
Water Repellency: The ability of a leather surface to resist
wetting by liquid water.
Water Resistance: The ability of a leather to resist absorption
and transmission of liquid water.
Waterproofness: Non-transmission of liquid water through the
cross-section of the leather.
Welt: (1) Shoemaking – The strip of leather between the upper and
the sole to which each part is to turn attached. (2) Any narrow strip of
leather between two pieces of leather joined by stitching through the
Welting Shoulder: The shoulder portion of vegetable-tanned
cattlehide leather, tanned with a low load to give the flexibility
required for a welt.
White Weight: The weight of limed, unwashed stock.
Wiley Mill: A mill for grinding leather, consisting of a chamber
with a hopper at the top for inserting the leather. The chamber contains
a motor-driven rotor with four blades equally spaced around its
circumference, and six blades in motion pass very close to the fixed
blades. There is a screen at the bottom of the chamber through which the
ground particles of leather fall into a receiver.
Willow: (1) Willow Grain – Refers to boarded leather. (2)
Willow-tanned – In the sporting goods industry used to indicate
flexible, well-oiled, chrome-tanned cattlehide or horsehide used for
Window: In a chamois skin, a thin portion that transmits light
when the skin is viewed against a window or light background.
Woolskin: Sheepskin tanned with the wool on.
Wrinkle: A permanent crease or furrow on the grain surface of a
hide or leather, incapable of removal by rolling or plating.